economic history of japan from 1960 to 2000
Government emerged as chief promoter of private enterprise, enacting a series of pro-business policies. In 1992, however, Japan's real GNP growth slowed to 1.7%. Rapid growth and structural change characterized Japan's two periods of economic development since 1868. As president, he sought to accelerate economic growth by increasing government spending and cutting taxes, and he pressed for medical help for the elderly, aid for inner cities, and increased funds for education. The left fared considerably better. Japanese companies added plant and human capacity ahead of demand. In the mid-1930s, the Japanese nominal wage rates were a tenth of those in the United States (based on mid-1930s exchange rates), while the price level is estimated to have been about 44% that of the US.. In the first period, the economy grew only moderately at first and relied heavily on traditional agriculture to finance modern industrial infrastructure. Economic growth averaging 5% between 1987 and 1989 revived industries, such as steel and construction, which had been relatively dormant in the mid-1980s, and brought record salaries and employment. As a result, ex-bureaucrats played significant roles in the LDP, often being elected to the Diet and becoming important cabinet members. This book offers an analytical tour of Japan’s socio-economic changes. During the period, Japan progressively studied Western sciences and techniques (called rangaku, literally "Dutch studies") through the information and books received through the Dutch traders in Dejima. Japans Feet Of Clay V 9 (Japanese Economic History, 1930-1960, V. 9) [Utley, Freda] on Amazon.com. In the early Meiji period, the government built factories and shipyards that were sold to entrepreneurs at a fraction of their value. US grant assistance, however, tapered off quickly in the mid-1950s. A World Bank report suggests two development policies among … Banks have delayed the decision to collect on the collateral, hoping asset prices would improve.  Fewer famines and epidemics allowed cities to grow and commerce to boom. The buildup of industry during the Meiji period to the point where Japan could vie for world power was an important prelude to post-war growth from 1955 to 1973, and provided a pool of experienced labor. In short, government was to be the guide, and business the producer. It was densely populated and urbanized. But the ideological right found few adherents among the postwar generation, and without military or big-business support the right wing played a largely dormant role during the 1950s and ’60s. The service industries expanded in an increasingly postindustrial economy. Japanese schools also encouraged discipline, another benefit in forming an effective work force. Japan inflation rate for 2016 was -0.12%, a 0.91% decline from 2015. , In the wake of WWII, the Japanese citizenry was suffering from widespread exhaustion and despair from the war, known as "kyodatsu," causing large-scale dejection and despondency. In 1972 the price of land in or near Japan’s largest cities was some 25 times higher than it had been in 1955, far surpassing the rise in the average urban worker’s disposable income for the same period. Instead of a fully realized system of money circulation, rice was the primary unit of exchange. The early post-war years were devoted to rebuilding lost industrial capacity: major investments were made in electric power, coal, steel, and chemicals. These mountains rise directly out of the ocean along the eastern shore facing the Pacific so that this shore, and the central parts of the island are sparsely populated. It was put together by a large legal advisory commission headed by the legal scholar Suehiro Izutaro. Clark (2007) – A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World. So-called “new” religions such as Sōka Gakkai (Value-Creation Society), which strongly appealed to those feeling isolated or alienated, flourished in the 1950s and ’60s. As sons, and even husbands, went off to the factories, women, children, and the elderly were often left to run the family farm. Finally, the economy benefited from foreign trade because it was able to expand exports rapidly enough to pay for imports of equipment and technology without falling into debt, as had a number of developing nations in the 1980s. By the guidance of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, with average growth rates of 10% in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s, and 4% in the 1980s, Japan was able to establish and maintain itself … The party depended on the financial support of business and banking, but its voter base remained in rural Japan. Complex economic and institutional factors affected Japan's post-war growth. The increased population there, however, was absorbed into the expanding urban areas, while the population of rural districts declined … Many industrial enterprises consolidated to form larger, more efficient units. The global economic recession of the late 2000s significantly harmed the economy of Japan. The position of women improved, as many more now went to high schools and colleges. The damaged bureaucracy started to receive taxe… , The Kofun period recorded Japan's earliest political centralization, when the Yamato clan rose to power in southwestern Japan, established the Imperial House, and helped control trade routes across the region. As the staging area for the United Nations forces on the Korean peninsula, Japan profited indirectly from the war, as valuable procurement orders for goods and services were assigned to Japanese suppliers. At the same time, the face of rural Japan changed, with hard-surfaced roads, concrete schools, factories, and sales outlets for automobiles and farm equipment replacing the once timeless thatched-roof houses. In the 1970s and 1980s, Japan improved its industrial base through licensing from the US, patent purchases, and imitation and improvement of foreign inventions. Foreign and domestic demand for Japanese electronics also declined, and Japan seemed on the way to losing its leadership in the world semiconductor market to the United States, Korea and Taiwan. Japan gdp growth rate for 2016 was 0.52%, a 0.7% decline from 2015. Japans Feet Of Clay V 9 (Japanese Economic History, 1930-1960, V. 9) Most people were farmers; others were fishers, weavers, potters, artisans, armorers, and ritual specialists. The principal innovation is the incorporation of detailed information for individual industries, including those involved in the production of computers, communications equipment, and electronic components as information technology equipment. As the national centre for government, finance, business, industry, education, and the arts, Tokyo became a magnet for many Japanese and the quintessential expression of Japanese urban life. Japan's imports grew at a faster rate than exports. The banks could try to collect on the collateral (land), but due to reduced real estate values, this would not pay off the loan. Japan's labor force contributed significantly to economic growth, because of its availability and literacy, and also because of its reasonable wage demands. The Japanese economy advanced a record 5.3 percent on quarter in the three months to September of 2020, better than the initial estimate of a 5 percent expansion, and recovering from a revised 8.3 percent slump in the previous period. The mid-1960s ushered in a new type of industrial development as the economy opened itself to international competition in some industries and developed heavy and chemical manufactures. Ideologically, the LDP combined a strong commitment to economic growth with the desire to return Japan to world prominence. In the 1960s Japanese exports expanded at an annual rate of more than 15 percent, and in 1965 Japan revealed the first signs that it had a trade surplus. As population growth slowed and the nation became increasingly industrialized in the mid-1960s, wages rose significantly. Investment in capital equipment, which averaged more than 11% of GNP during the prewar period, rose to about 20% of GNP during the 1950s and to more than 30% in the late 1960s and 1970s. Urban life also brought about changes in traditional Japanese family and gender relationships.  Because the daimyōs and other groups within Japan were minting their own coins, Japan began to transition from a barter-based to a currency-based economy. Japanese post-war technological research was carried out for the sake of economic growth rather than military development.  Their pilot was William Adams, the first Englishman to reach Japan. This allowed local companies to invest in capital resources more easily than their overseas competitors, which reduced the price of Japanese-made goods and widened the trade surplus further. As late as 1955, some 40% of the labor force still worked in agriculture, but this figure had declined to 17% by 1970 and to 7.2% by 1990 and under 5% in the 21st century as Japan imported more and more of its food and small family farms disappeared..  As the Yayoi population increased, the society became more stratified and complex. The Japanese became enthusiastic followers of the American statistician W. Edward Deming’s ideas on quality control and soon began producing goods that were more reliable and contained fewer flaws than those of the United States and western Europe. Television tied rural households to urban Japan and to the world beyond. US military procurement from Japan peaked at a level equivalent to 7% of Japan's GNP in 1953 and fell below 1% after 1960.  During the period, some of Japan's most representative art forms developed, including ink wash painting, ikebana flower arrangement, the tea ceremony, Japanese gardening, bonsai, and Noh theater. The control of rice fields provided a key source of income for families such as the Fujiwara and was a fundamental base for their power. With the restoration of sovereignty, politicians who had been purged by the occupation were allowed to return to public life. of Tokyo Press, 1995. Such factors promoted the development of distinct social classes. By the late 1920s, manufacturing and mining contributed 23% of GDP, compared with 21% for all of agriculture. This paper presents new data on the sources of growth for the Japanese economy over the period 1960- 2000. By the mid-seventh century, the agricultural lands had grown to a substantial public domain, subject to central policy. The Dutch also engaged in piracy and naval combat to weaken Portuguese and Spanish shipping in the Pacific, and ultimately became the only westerners to be allowed access to Japan from the small enclave of Dejima after 1638 and for the next two centuries. This page provides - Japan Population - actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news. Japan’s modern history is unusual in Asia because it was the only Asian country to achieve advanced industrial status in the first half of the twentieth century. The mountainous character of the country has caused the population to concentrate within the limited plains and lowlands—notably along the Pacific littoral. The economical miracle can be divided into four stages: the recovery (1946–1954), the high increase (1955–1972), the steady increase (1972–1992), and the low increase (1992–2017). Based on Chinese models (including the adoption of the Chinese written language), they developed a system of trade roads and a central administration. Advances in microcircuitry and semiconductors in the late 1970s and 1980s led to new growth industries in consumer electronics and computers, and to higher productivity in pre-established industries. Japan's highly acclaimed post-war education system contributed strongly to the modernizing process. Even here, however, the recession took its toll. Private consumption rebounded firmly (5.1 percent vs -8.3 percent in Q2) while public spending rose at a faster pace (2.8 percent vs 0.3 … The development of banking and reliance on bank funding have been at the centre of Japanese economic development at least since the Meiji era. But even with a stable population Japan remained one of the world’s most densely populated countries. The first was the development of a consumer economy, which was given a significant boost by Ikeda Hayato’s Income Doubling Plan of 1960. Japan inflation rate for 2019 was 0.48%, a 0.5% decline from 2018. The downward movement in the Nikkei is likely due to global as well as national economic problems. Despite more petroleum price increases in 1979, the strength of the Japanese economy was apparent. About 40% of the nation's industrial plants and infrastructure were destroyed, and production reverted to levels of about fifteen years earlier. The era of high growth continued until the “oil shock” of 1973: the embargo by OPEC (the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Nations). Two elements underscored rapid growth in the 1960s. Many of these businesses grew rapidly into the larger conglomerates. It expanded without the double-digit inflation that afflicted other industrial nations (and that had bothered Japan itself after the first oil crisis in 1973). Growth rates moderated to about 8% and evened out between the industrial and service sectors between 1970 and 1973, as retail trade, finance, real estate, information technology, and other service industries streamlined their operations. In the decades following World War II, Japan implemented stringent tariffs and policies to encourage the people to save their income. This meant that Japan’s new factories, using the latest developments in technology, were often more efficient than those of their foreign competitors. Dissatisfaction with the party’s handling of domestic labour issues, Japan’s involvement in the Vietnam War, demands for the reversion of Okinawa to Japanese sovereignty, and extensive student uprisings on university campuses, combined with growing doubts about the effects of unbridled growth and the increasing dangers from pollution, all undercut the party’s popularity. Japan experienced a high -growth peroi d from the mid-1950s to the early 1970s. A prolonged economic slump that followed brought cutbacks in employment in heavy industry. The first term is during Pre-war Japan, the second term is Post-war Japan. This is the first volume to appear in what will be a definitive multi-volume series covering the whole of modern Japanese economic history. Occasionally disturbing incidents, such as the 1960 assassination of the socialist leader Asanuma Inajirō by a right-wing activist, revealed that the right was still able to intimidate; but rightists, for the most part, concentrated on campaigns to restore the use of the national flag, revive such national holidays as Foundation Day (February 11; succeeded in 1966), and restore state sponsorship for Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo (where Japan’s war dead, notably those of World War II, are enshrined). Released from the demands of military-dominated government, the economy not only recovered its lost momentum but also surpassed the growth rates of earlier periods. Unlike the economic booms of the 1960s and 1970s, when increasing exports played the key role in economic expansion, domestic demand propelled the Japanese economy in the late 1980s. Juvenile delinquency showed some increase, but overall crime rates remained low. By the year 1000, the government no longer knew how to issue currency and money was gradually disappearing.  Inspired by the Chinese Tang dynasty coinage Kaiyuan Tongbao, the Wadōkaichin began being produced following the discovery of large copper deposits in Japan during the early 8th century. During the early stages of Japan's expansion, the Japanese economy expanded considerably. Efforts to control population growth, which had begun with the legalization of abortion in 1948 and included a national campaign to encourage family planning, showed considerable success, as the population stabilized and thereafter grew slowly. Thus, the Japanese were famously frugal with their consumable resources; what little they had they used with expert skill. Japan - Japan - Demographic trends: Japan’s population distribution is highly variable. Still, by the late 1960s and early ’70s there also were signs of a decline in LDP support. Finally, circumstances beyond Japan's direct control contributed to its success. , In spite of the war, Japan's relative economic prosperity, which had begun in the Kamakura period, continued well into the Muromachi period. International conflicts tended to stimulate the Japanese economy until the devastation at the end of World War II. Living space for most urban dwellers was infinitesimal when compared with Western societies. The growth in high-technology industries in the 1980s resulted from heightened domestic demand for high-technology products such as electronics, and for higher living, housing, and environmental standards; better medical care and more welfare; expanded leisure-time facilities; and improved ways to accommodate a rapidly aging society.. Japan's economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s was based on the rapid expansion of heavy manufacturing in such areas as automobiles, steel, shipbuilding, chemicals, and electronics. Tokyo became a major financial center, home to some of the world's major banks, financial firms, insurance companies, and the world's largest stock exchange, the Tokyo Securities and Stock Exchange. Almost immediately, the occupiers began an intensive program of legal changes designed to democratize Japan. In spite of the Kamakura shogunate's victory, the defense so depleted its finances that it was unable to provide compensation to its vassals for their role in the victory. At the local level, LDP politicians established political networks that became the hallmarks of postwar politics and emphasized the role of personal “machine” politics over party platforms. American fashions of dress and grooming, often set by movie and rock stars, quickly found bands of faithful imitators. Forces, mostly American, rapidly began arriving in Japan - Demographic trends: Japan ’ s population dramatic! 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