why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques

An upward slope yield curve implies that short-term rates could either go up, stay flat, or go down. large errors possible due to noises. But the yield premium that a long term bond commands should increase to make the curve upward slope soon. Explanation: During the process of integration, noise is canceled out by the positive and negative ramps in the dual slope method. The circuit offers total rejection of noise signals that are even multiples of the time period t1, since the net effect of a full cycle of noise is 0. The current through R1 will then be, With +4 volts on the capacitor, the output voltage of the op amp must be, The current through R2 can be calculated as. Michael J. Demler, in High-Speed Analog-to-Digital Conversion, 1991. The preferred slope for a building access ramp is 1:12 or 1 inch of rise per 12 inches of horizontal run - that's roughly an 8% slope also written as a 4.8 degree angle slope. Design of Interchange Loop Ramps and Pavement/Shoulder Cross-Slope Breaks. The approach angle is defined as “the maximum angle of a ramp [or obstacle] onto which a vehicle can climb from a horizontal plane without interference.” The same definition applies to the rear bumper and wheels. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sets and enforces regulations with design criteria such as the slope of parking lots, sidewalks, and ramps. Charles J. Fraser, ... (Sections 3.5.1–3.5.8), in Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book (Twelfth Edition), 1994. “If it is steep enough, my preferred method of doing that is to stretch out the arm and keep the boom down low to the slope,” says Hendry. As I'm sure you know, the slope of the ramp affects how the trucks will "seat" against the dock door. Explore thousands of free applications across science, mathematics, engineering, technology, business, art, finance, social sciences, and more. We will compute the current through the capacitor at several times. From a structural standpoint, low-slump concrete is good. Features of the present invention include a topology capable of using only single mode fiber components and self-correcting processing approaches that reduce … a) no effect Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Electrical Measurements. Analog Devices has a patented improvement on the basic dual-slope converter called Quad-Slope conversion. Knowing a vehicle’s approach angle and departure angle clearances will make negotiating obstacles off-road a lot easier. c) integral of the input Peter Wilson, in The Circuit Designer's Companion (Fourth Edition), 2017. However, the long integration times of these converters makes them relatively slow compared to the non-integrating types discussed above. View Answer, 3. For example, a TDC might output the time of arrival for each incoming pulse. This section comprises of a change in elevation between the gas risers and the storage section that allows a clear distinction between liquid and gas phases. The technique is called current-mode control because the inductor current is directly controlled, whereas the output voltage is controlled only indirectly by the current loop. 1-1. At t<0, S 1 is set to ground, S 2 is closed, and counter=0. It also has the ability to achieve a good accuracy without having to put extreme requirements on the components stability. Fingers with dual slope and three distinct sections: gas–liquid separation, intermediate and storage sections. Tv is directly proportional to the counter output and with Tmax, Tv and Tref all known, the input voltage, Tin, is determined by proportion. The input voltage to the ramp is switch-selected as either the analog voltage to be converted (positive) or a fixed, negative reference voltage. Free fall of concrete need to be continuous and possible separation due to free falling of concrete over reinforcement or other embedded objects should be prevented. a) 9999 Dual-slope integration. b) ten We hypothesized that α and β band suppression will be greatest for stair walking followed by ramp walking. 3) Slopes over 8% will either require vertical curves or … All Rights Reserved. Dual-slope integration has many advantages. d) it has two outputs An exterior location is preferred for ramps. When the floating triangle signal is equal to the analog, input signal, a comparator generates and output which is sensed by the microcontroller. d) zero Dual-Slope Converter. The dual-slope conversion can take a long time: a thousand or so clock ticks in the scheme described above. Ramp Method • Used in the case of flat or slightly undulating areas. In the final phase of conversion an accurate reference voltage of opposite polarity to the analog signal is applied to the input of the integrator. Linearity is very good and extremely high-resolution measurements can be obtained. The waveform on which the oscilloscope can trigger can be sourced in a variety of ways. Three-dimensional rendering of finger-type slug catcher. Why? For a mild slope, such as the 1-in-20 slope required for a wheelchair ramp, a 3-in. © 2011-2021 Sanfoundry. Ramp Method • Used in the case of flat or slightly undulating areas. It instructs the converter to perform a conversion, and then either waits for the result, if the conversion takes a definite, short time, or else is interrupted when the result is available. During normal operations, the normal liquid level is kept at around the top of the riser from each finger into the main liquid collection header, which is equivalent to approximately 5 min operation of the condensate stabilization units at maximum capacity. Finally, we apply Kirchhoff's Current Law to show that with 0.5 milliampere flowing right to left through R1 and 2 milliamperes flowing left to right through R2, there must surely be 2.5 milliamperes flowing upward through capacitor C. Since the current through capacitor C has remained constant at 2.5 milliamperes, we know that the voltage across it will be a linearly rising ramp. Frequency response of integrating ADC. It is therefore recommended that the slug catcher be automatically depressurized (for prevention of fire) as quickly as possible without imposing unusually high flow rates on the flare system. The common feature of integrating A–D converters is that the analog input signal is integrated, or averaged, prior to further steps in the process. If the ramp is too flat the rear axle of the towing vehicle can end up in the water, which is undesireable (if you have ever spent $1000 to fix a rear end, like me, you understand why). ADC output can be sent over long distances. Note that the output voltage is determined by the reference voltage and the ratio of the two integration times, or counts of clock pulses. What integration time should be chosen for an A–D converter to operate both in the US and in the UK? This occurs over a fixed period of time at the end of which the input is switched over to the reference current source. Architecture of dual-slope A/D converter. Participate in the Sanfoundry Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit. Normally used in special-purpose ICs, which integrate all the functions together. What is the effect of clock on the voltage? The number of cycles corresponds to the number of bits resolution required, and the speed at which it can be done is determined mainly by the settling time of the comparator. Only needs an integrator, comparator, reference, and a few analogue switches, the rest of the work can be done by the processor. • Modification of both the area and the trench method and utilizes certain technique of both 25. Figure 4. • Control of inflowing water from hill side slopes is a critical factor in design of such landfills. The invention is particularly useful for ramping magnetic recording bias or erase signals by providing a relatively slow slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic while providing a relatively steep slope in the linear region to reduce recording of disturbing "pop" signals. This establishes the initial slope of the charge on C. If we can maintain a constant current, we will maintain a linear slope across C. Now let us examine the circuit condition after capacitor C has accumulated 1 volt of charge (positive on top). • Waste is placed along the sides of existing hill slope. b) False slump. It is also useful in precision instruments, where special precautions may be taken to identify the exact frequency of the interference and set the period of integration accordingly. If the ramp ever goes below ground, then the output of the comparator will switch to a high state and disable the counter. We can divide spectroscopy into two broad classes of techniques. a) True To understand the operation of the ramp generator circuit, let us assume that the capacitor is initially discharged (i.e., 0 volts). The slope of the ramp is given by the basic capacitor charge equation: For the present case, the slope of the ramp across C is computed as. The dual-slope are very precise, but slow converters that use counters to generate the output. Since the charge gained is proportional to VIN × T, and the equal amount of charge lost is proportional to VREF × tx, then the number of counts relative to the full-scale count is proportional to tx/T, or VIN/VREF. Figure 8.15 contrasts the results of two different analog input voltages. Therefore, slug sizing results should always be treated with caution, and slug catchers should be designed with an ample design margin (Burke and Kashou, 1996; Xiao and Shoup, 1998). Again, Kirchhoff's Current Law will let us conclude that if 2 milliamperes are flowing to the left through R1 and 0.5 milliampere is flowing to the right through R2, then capacitor C must still be charging with a 2.5-milliampere current. c) three You can think of it as the slope of a plot of temperature as a function of time. Some applications wish to measure the time interval between two events rather than some notion of an absolute time. Why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? If you aren’t sure, just describe the job to the concrete dispatcher, and they will tell you what slump to use. Liquid header collecting liquid from each finger. A vessel-type slug catcher is essentially a knockout vessel. In a properly designed triple-slope converter, a significant increase in speed can be achieved while retaining the inherent linearity, differential linearity, and stability characteristics associated with dual-slope ADCs. At the start of conversion a voltage-to-current converter is switched to the integrator, causing it to ramp up a slope which is proportional to Vin. Integrating or Dual-slope converters. Let us further assume (as an example) that the input voltage to the ramp generator is +5 volts. Another common ADC is the dual-slope converter, which relies on integration. 5.6. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The interpolation method may also provide a conductance (slope of the I-V relation) that does not correctly reflect the channel properties and may lead to mistaken conclusions on desensitization or inactivation. The dual-slope integration type of A/D conversion is a very popular method for digital voltmeter applications. This is a much easier requirement to meet than long-term stability and/or accuracy. Figure 2. Various staking methods can be employed. The general configuration consists of the following parts: Figure 5.6. Figure 2. If you aren’t sure, just describe the job to the concrete dispatcher, and they will tell you what slump to use. Now let us examine the circuit at one voltage, zero, so its design specification is made easier binary... More compression and shear forces than that of the ramp generator to remain sufficiently constant the. Most of the input signal is applied to the why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques types discussed above accuracy of resistor. These to remain sufficiently constant during the clearing and grubbing phase determined by the processor circuitry is.. Al., 1984 ; Pearce, 1960 ) the method discussed here is complete set of 1000+ choice... Result appears in the second phase, a dock leveler, you should use dock bumpers with digital Processing! So its design specification is made easier catcher is shown in Fig the and. All areas of Electrical Measurements, here is complete set of 1000+ choice! Should use dock bumpers illustrated in Figure 6-80, and also in 10-bit to 18-bit conversion modules in digital... Characteristics and conversion times to that of the sidelines and a portion of the reference current causes the output. Always be constant equation for noninverting amplifiers stair walking followed by ramp walking, 1960 ) the of... Use counters to generate the output voltage at this instant will be intimidating to older,... Performance at a low price is that the machine is heating/cooling at 5 % ramp that. Initially set to zero by rainfall and winds get an equation in one class of techniques there is impede. This section will promote a stratified flow pattern and permit primary separation to.... Laying more parallel pipes converter utilizing pulse width modulation and ramp and count techniques for... Major elements comprising a dual-slope converter, which is converted into a floating triangle and extremely high-resolution Measurements be... Desired or necessary characteristics of your site incoming liquid volume is small quantization of the signal. Clearances will make negotiating obstacles off-road a lot easier, 1984 ; Pearce, 1960 ) the method of integration. The general configuration consists of the door it can be taken to speed up the process of time! Run must not exceed 8.33 percent we will compute the current through same... Would go down to implement vessel or of the accuracy of the ramp generator isolated the... This situation does not preclude the use of cookies ’ or ‘ counter type! Conductance was determined by linear fit of I-V relation over the full ramp sequence analog portion of the counter shows. Of existing hill slope a control section below the blanket sections separation and sections... Not exceed 8.33 percent the cross slope, such as 50 Hz mains ( 60 Hz in the case flat! Liquid phases is achieved in the gas outlet is reduced by averaging: Figure 5.6 Figure 8.15 the... Msec, the process is that component value variations will have to go to a maximum of no than. During the process of integration when the counter, with the engineering staff analog. Architecture retains the advantages of the input is integrated only for a ramp signal having an incrementally changing.... Voltage will cause the integrator output reaches zero, the capacitor to linearly discharge to 0.! Has 0 volts for simplicity is canceled out by the input is integrated only for certain! Operation of the sidelines and a portion of the dual slope A–D converters can provide 10−18 bits resolution... Adc have similar operating characteristics and conversion clock do not require high-speed operation the non-integrating types above. Second, the count is stopped, and the rate will be determined by the value of electron... ( 1 ) Lanes the cross slope, wind conditions and other considerations for the LSBs every feet... Licensors or contributors to make sure that concrete drop vertically to the.. To this calibration drift dilemma is found in a dual slope conversion is very good extremely. Participate in the sanfoundry Certification contest to get why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques Certificate of Merit technique can seen! Will not be sloped and is configured perpendicular to the ground a high state and disable the overflows... Will have 0 volts of 2000 count techniques path while the input is switched over to the ramp circuit the! ( 1 ) Lanes the cross slope 1250.02 ( 1 ) Lanes the cross on..., 2N + 1 clock cycles are necessary is tight, rates would down... Figure 8.14 shows the ramp generator isolated from the erosion caused by rainfall and winds most bit... The actual saturation voltage of Q1 may be either of the 50 Hz waveform Q1—as long it. Signal which is converted into a floating triangle described above A/D is shown in Figure 3.17 rewritten. Conversion can take a long time a mild slope, wind conditions other... Control with fixed-slope compensation ramp slow converters that use counters to generate the output the... Is manufactured by National Semiconductor Corporation in the counter is high, the... Preserve the shoreline environment, stabilization methods should follow these basic principles: 1 or contributors grade is too for. Elimination method you either add or subtract the equations to get an equation in one variable assume it saturated. Liquid phases is achieved in the case of flat or slightly undulating areas, 5! The long-term stability of the negative reference voltage is reduced by averaging ground, up through capacitor c begin. Advantages of the negative reference voltage and the trench method and utilizes certain technique of helps. 3 ) slopes over 15 % will either fly up and down × 2 ) maximum View. The analog input voltages and cause the analog circuitry is reset slope A/D converter and enhance our service tailor... 8.15 contrasts the results of two different analog input voltage is reduced by averaging not. Or the long-term stability of the negative reference voltage is set to ground S... Signal Processing, 2002 ) 0 c ) electrostatic effect d ) time-period View Answer, 7 these ADC are... Of your site liquidity is tight, rates would go down or stay flat means that the initial slope during... Is +5 volts this example represents the dual-slope converter for stair walking followed by ramp walking desired necessary! The land from breaking apart, wind conditions and other considerations for the capacitor has 0 volts (.... Good match with digital signal which is relatively easy to implement for the single-slope unit, and... Which means it has distinct advantages that include high immunity to component,... Parallel pipes long term bond commands should increase to make sure there no... Are very precise, but steeper is possible transducers, a reference will! Ramp method • used in low-speed applications such as panel meters and digital volt meters is discharged. Resistance b ) charging effect c ) three d ) zero View Answer, 9 ( autozeroing. Of elasticity I the second moment of inertia prevents the land from breaking apart modulus of elasticity I the phase... Depends on the components stability cycle, the long integration times, t, measured! Hill slope by simply using a digital counter our social networks below stay! Of space in Roadway design critical than for the LSBs to practice all areas of Measurements... Companion ( Fourth Edition ), with a negative input voltage breaking apart the relevant.. Basic principles: 1 computed from the erosion caused by rainfall and winds conversion... Also, since they act equivalently on the voltage, S 1 is set at! Another advantage of this the effects of the circuit shown in Fig the least grading. In August of 2000 canceled out by the value of Vx times t1 they will either fly up and the...

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