# gamma decay emits

When the radioactive atom emits the alpha particle its mass and atomic number changes. Note that both the mass numbers and the atomic numbers add up properly for the beta decay of thorium-234 (Equation $$\ref{beta2}$$): The mass numbers of the original nucleus and the new nucleus are the same because a neutron has been lost, but a proton has been gained, and so the sum of protons plus neutrons remains the same. Complete the following nuclear reaction by filling in the missing particle. The two best ways to minimize exposure is to limit time of exposure and to increase distance from the source. Gamma Decay: The nucleus has orbiting electrons which indeed have some energy, and when an electron jumps from a level of high energy to a level of low energy, there is an emission of a photon. An alpha particle is 2 protons and 2 neutrons (i.e. $\ce{_{86}^{210}Rn} \rightarrow \ce{_2^4He} + ?$. Radioactivity - Radioactivity - Gamma decay: A third type of radiation, gamma radiation, usually accompanies alpha or beta decay. Frequently, gamma ray production accompanies nuclear reactions of all types. The two most common modes of natural radioactivity are alpha decay and beta decay. Alpha decay. The top number, 4, is the mass number or the total of the protons and neutrons in the particle. For example, cobalt-60, an isotope that emits gamma rays used to treat cancer, has a half-life of 5.27 years (Figure 21.10). The safest amount of radiation to the human body is zero. Gamma rays. If the nucleus has too few neutrons, it will emit a ‘package’ of two protons and two neutrons called an alpha particle. The gamma decay is highly energetic decay, but they are neutral in nature. Also, note that because this was an alpha reaction, one of the products is the alpha particle, $$\ce{_2^4He}$$. In the most common form of gamma decay, known as gamma emission, gamma rays (photons, or packets of electromagnetic energy, of extremely short wavelength) are radiated. This is analogous to de-excitation of an atomic electron. Gamma Decay. $\ce{_{90}^{230}Th} \rightarrow \ce{_2^4He} + \ce{_{88}^{226}Ra} \label{alpha2}$. Gamma decay emits high energy electromagnetic radiation; no change to nuclear composition radioactive decay occurs when ______, radioactive atoms give off their energy to become more ______. When these emissions were originally observed, scientists were unable to identify them as some already known particles and so named them: These particles were named using the first three letters of the Greek alphabet. Types Radiation Produced by Radioactive Decay When an atom undergoes radioactive decay, it emits one or more forms of radiation with sufficient energy to ionize the atoms with which it interacts. We are left with the following reaction: $\ce{_6^{14}C} \rightarrow \ce{_{-1}^0e} + \ce{_7^{14}N}$. When a nucleus emits an alpha particle, these changes happen: ... Gamma decay. Gamma decay or γ decay represents the disintegration of a parent nucleus to a daughter through the emission of gamma rays (high energy photons). When a nucleus emits an alpha particle, these changes happen: ... Gamma decay. The daughter nucleus can decay by emitting a gamma ray (i.e. Alpha particles have the least penetration power and can be stopped by a thick sheet of paper or even a layer of clothes. Gamma rays are photons and are without rest mass or charge. This transition (γ decay) can be characterized as:As can be seen, if a nucleus emits a gamma ray, atomic and mass numbers of daughter nucleus remain the same, but daughter nucleus will form different energy state of the same element. There are similar decay series for $$\ce{U}$$-235 and $$\ce{Th}$$-232. And the parent nuclei emit α or β particle and the daughter nuclei usually at the higher energy level. Solved: Barium-137 emits a gamma ray from an excited state (^137Ba). Quark - particles that form one of the two basic constituents of matter. Here is the nuclear equation for this beta decay: $\ce{_{90}^{234}Th} \rightarrow \ce{_{-1}^0e} + \ce{_{91}^{234}Pa} \label{beta2}$. 60 m Co, for example, is produced by the electron emission of 60Fe. They are considered to have the least ionizing power and the greatest penetration power. On the nucleus’s path to the ground state, it emits a number of gamma rays to expend the extra energy it possesses. There are two types: (i) positive beta decay―emission of an electron and neutrino (positron); and (ii) negative beta decay―emission of an electron and an anti-neutrino. Protons and neutrons in an excited nucleus are in higher orbitals, and they fall to lower levels by photon emission (analogous to electrons in excited atoms). Gamma rays are produced during gamma decay of an excited nucleus. Figure 17.3.2: Three most common modes of nuclear decay. We are left with: $\ce{_{92}^{238}U} \rightarrow \ce{_2^4He} + \ce{_{90}^{234}Th}$. Gamma decay is the process by which the nucleus of an atom emits a high energy photon, that is, extremely short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation.. Gamma Decay In some cases, gamma decay is delayed, and a short-lived, metastable, nuclide is formed, which is identified by a small letter m written after the mass number. Ionizing radiation can consist of high speed subatomic particles ejected from the nucleus or electromagnetic radiation (gamma-rays) emitted by either the nucleus or orbital electrons. For example, when an atom of carbon-14 emits a beta particle it changes into nitrogen. decay equation: the equation to find out how much of a radioactive material is left after a given period of time. The essential features of each reaction are shown in Figure 17.3.2. (Deze vraag gaat altijd over het werkwoord dat de persoonsvorm is, over een enkelvoudig onderwerp en over de tegenwoordig tijd. 2.7k plays . Identification using simple absorption experiments. Beta decay always emits electrons. These types of equations are called nuclear equations and are similar to the chemical equivalent discussed through the previous chapters. Several of the radioactive nuclei that are found in nature are present there because they are produced in one of the radioactive decay series. b) Alpha particles have the symbol $$\ce{_2^4He}$$. There is no change in the proton number and nucleon number. The atomic numbers (bottom numbers) on the two sides of the reaction will also be equal. Click, We have moved all content for this concept to. Gamma-ray emission is therefore the only kind of radiation that does not necessarily involve the conversion of one element to another, although it is almost always observed in conjunction with some other nuclear decay reaction. Beta decay always emits electrons. Beta decay comes in two varieties. A nuclear reaction in which an unstable parent nucleus emits an alpha particle and forms a stable daughter nucleus, is called 'alpha decay'. 20 Qs . This transition (γ decay) can be characterized as:As can be seen, if a nucleus emits a gamma ray, atomic and mass numbers of daughter nucleus remain the same, but daughter nucleus will form different energy state of the same element. So it is fine to ignore charge in balancing nuclear reactions, and concentrate on balancing mass and atomic numbers only. Legal. That means that nuclear changes involve almost a million times more energy per atom than chemical changes! You are viewing an older version of this Read. Instead, a high energy form of electromagnetic radiation - a gamma ray photon - is released. There is increasing in the number of proton. There is no change in the proton number and nucleon number. Gamma decay is one type of radioactive decay that a nucleus can undergo. Gamma radioactivity generally accompanies alpha or beta decay, as this example of cobalt 60 shows. Gamma rays have tremendous penetration power and require several inches of dense material (like lead) to shield them. With all the radiation from natural and man-made sources, we should quite reasonably be concerned about how all the radiation might affect our health. Protactinium-234 is also a beta emitter and produces uranium-234. $\ce{_{92}^{238}U} \rightarrow \ce{_2^4He} + \ce{_{90}^{234}Th} + 2 \ce{_0^0\gamma}$. The atom emits a gamma ray as it decays into the ground state. In the alpha decay of $$\ce{U}$$-238, two gamma rays of different energies are emitted in addition to the alpha particle. Mits en tenzij zijn deftige woorden die vaak door elkaar worden gebruikt. This indicates how strong in your memory this concept is. We get atomic numbers and symbols for elements using our periodic table. Protons and neutrons in an excited nucleus are in higher orbitals, and they fall to lower levels by photon emission (analogous to electrons in excited atoms). Because it has two protons, and a total of four protons and neutrons, alpha particles must also have two neutrons. The nuclear disintegration process that emits alpha particles is called alpha decay. We will try to understand how these particles are emitted and its effects on the emitting nucleus. The bottom number in a nuclear symbol is the number of protons. The $$\ce{U}$$-235 series ends with $$\ce{Pb}$$-207 and the $$\ce{Th}$$-232 series ends with $$\ce{Pb}$$-208. The radon that is present now is present because it was formed in a decay series (mostly by U-238). A nucleus in an excited state can decay to a lower-level state by the emission of a “gamma-ray” photon, and this is known as gamma decay. Writing nuclear equations for alpha, beta, and gamma decay. This transition ( γ decay ) can be characterized as: As can be seen, if a nucleus emits a gamma ray, atomic and mass numbers of daughter nucleus remain the same, but daughter nucleus will form different energy state of the same element. These rays were later identified to be originating from the decay of the radioactive nucleus of uranium. There are 3 types of processes in radioactive decay, which is the most dangerous type? Read each statement and determine if it describes alpha, beta, or gamma decay. This transition (γ decay) can be characterized as:As can be seen, if a nucleus emits a gamma ray, atomic and mass numbers of daughter nucleus remain the same, but daughter nucleus will form different energy state of the same element. For example, when an atom of carbon-14 emits a beta particle it changes into nitrogen. Oops, looks like cookies are disabled on your browser. Alpha decay emits the same number of protons and neutrons Beta decay always emits protons. The equation for the decay is: The (*) denotes the nucleus is in an excited state. Practice: Atomic nucleus questions. How thick of a wall do you need to hide behind to be safe? V Alpha - decay has a charge of +2. DONE 2 See answers a7hyf2frq8 a7hyf2frq8 Answer: A and E. For example, in the decay of the excited state at 35 keV of 125 Te (which is produced by the decay of 125I), 7% of the decays emit gamma ray, while 93% emit a conversion electrons. Gamma decay or γ decay represents the disintegration of a parent nucleus to a daughter through the emission of gamma rays (high energy photons). Much of the threat from radiation is involved with the ease or difficulty of protecting oneself from the particles. What isotope will result from this decay ... Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Decay . 15 P 32 → 16 S 32 + -1 e 0 (β - decay) In β - decay there is no change in the mass number of the daughter nucleus but the atomic number increases by one. The same is true of the atomic numbers. In a nuclear explosion or some sort of nuclear accident, where radioactive emitters are spread around in the environment, the emitters can be inhaled or taken in with food or water and once the alpha emitter is inside you, you have no protection at all. Gamma rays are photons and are without rest mass or charge. There is increasing in the number of proton. Both alpha and beta particles are charged, but nuclear reactions in Equations $$\ref{alpha1}$$, $$\ref{beta2}$$, and most of the other nuclear reactions above, are not balanced with respect to charge, as discussed when balancing redox reactions. decay occurs when a nucleus emits either an electron or a positron, Gamma = decay has no charge on mass but is capable of penetrating many substances. Click, SCI.CHE.999.159 (Gamma Decay - Physical Science). This transition (γ decay) can be characterized as:As can be seen, if a nucleus emits a gamma ray, atomic and mass numbers of daughter nucleus remain the same, but daughter nucleus will form different energy state of the same element. They are the most energetic of... Gamma rays are produced during gamma decay of an excited nucleus. Gamma Decay. Write each of the following nuclear reactions. Paul Villard, a French chemist and physicist, discovered gamma radiation in 1900, while studying radiation emitted from radium. answer choices . When writing nuclear equations, there are some general rules that will help you: In the alpha decay of $$\ce{^{238}U}$$ (Equation $$\ref{alpha1}$$), both atomic and mass numbers are conserved: Confirm that this equation is correctly balanced by adding up the reactants' and products' atomic and mass numbers. Next lesson. Cobalt 60 gamma spectrum: The excited states of nickel 60 are reached when cobalt 60, an isotope widely used in medicine, undergoes beta decay. It is tempting to picture this as a neutron breaking into two pieces with the pieces being a proton and an electron. Another common decay process is beta particle emission, or beta decay. gamma decay: type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a gamma particle. Most human imaging procedures with radioactivity are accomplished using 99m Tc, which emits a 140 keV gamma ray during decay. They collide with molecules very quickly when striking matter, add two electrons, and become a harmless helium atom. (image will be uploaded soon) Alpha Beta Gamma Decay. : Decay of uranium (U 238) to thorium (Th 234) with the emission of an alpha particle. Most of the time, the gamma ray photon is emitted within 10-12seconds after the particle associated with the decay is emitted, as in the equation with Helium-3 below. Beta (b –) decay During gamma decay, the nucleus emits a “packet” of energy called a gamma particle. Gamma decay also includes two other electromagnetic processes, internal conversion … DONE 2 See answers a7hyf2frq8 a7hyf2frq8 Answer: A and E. Alpha decay emits the same number of protons and neutrons. They are also stopped by the outer layer of dead skin on people. Concept introduction: When the radioactive atom emits the alpha particle its mass and atomic number changes. And, it follows the radioactive laws. Because of the large mass of the alpha particle, it has the highest ionizing power and the greatest ability to damage tissue. The two protons also have a charge of $$+2$$. For example, there may have been radon on the earth at the time of its formation, but that original radon would have all decayed by this time. Beta . A sample is placed 10 cm from the surface of a 5 cm radius cylindrical detector along its axis. That would be convenient for simplicity, but unfortunately that is not what happens (more on this subject will be explained at the end of this section). The interactive program model describes a radioactive substance A disintegrating a stable substance B . Maar wat betekenen ze eigenlijk? A cobalt-60 nucleus in the excited state emits a y-ray photon. Nuclei do not contain electrons and yet during beta decay, an electron is emitted from a nucleus. The daughter nucleus will have a higher atomic number than the original nucleus. Large amounts of radiation are very dangerous, even deadly. 4. Beta particles are much smaller than alpha particles and therefore, have much less ionizing power (less ability to damage tissue), but their small size gives them much greater penetration power. This transition ( γ decay ) can be characterized as: As can be seen, if a nucleus emits a gamma ray, atomic and mass numbers of daughter nucleus remain the same, but daughter nucleus will form different energy state of the same element. This is also a spontaneous process, like the alpha decay, with a definite disintegration energy and half-life. The atomic number in the process has been increased by one since the new nucleus has one more proton than the original nucleus. Once again, the atomic number increases by one and the mass number remains the same; confirm that the equation is correctly balanced. Ionizing radiation can consist of high speed subatomic particles ejected from the nucleus or electromagnetic radiation (gamma-rays) emitted by either the nucleus or orbital electrons. Where does an alpha particle get this symbol? The γdecay equation is simply $$_Z^A\text{X}_N^{*}\right… Beta decay is when a nucleus decays spontaneously by emitting an electron or a positron. are a type of electromagnetic radiation. In most cases, radiation will damage a single (or very small number) of cells by breaking the cell wall or otherwise preventing a cell from reproducing. This reaction is an alpha decay. Solution 2: Remember that the mass numbers on each side must total up to the same amount. Nuclear reactions produce a great deal more energy than chemical reactions. Gamma decay is the simplest form of nuclear decay - it is the emission of energetic photons by nuclei left in an excited state by some earlier process. Nuclear excited states have lifetimes typically of only about 10−14 s, an indication of the great strength of the forces pulling the nucleons to lower states. Gamma rays are particles of fast-moving matter Gamma rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation. The more material the radiation can pass through, the greater the penetration power and the more dangerous it is. 4.3k plays . E.g. Vertalingen in context van "Mits" in Nederlands-Engels van Reverso Context: mits deze, mits aan de volgende voorwaarden, mits wordt, mits de betrokken, mits aan bepaalde voorwaarden Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks. Gamma rays are energy that has no mass or charge. Gamma decay or γ decay represents the disintegration of a parent nucleus to a daughter through the emission of gamma rays (high energy photons). Tenzij steekt er een stokje voor! The beta decay is emission of an electron from a radioactive atom. a) Carbon-14, used in carbon dating, decays by beta emission. This transition (γ decay) can be characterized as:As can be seen, if a nucleus emits a gamma ray, atomic and mass numbers of daughter nucleus remain the same, but daughter nucleus will form different energy state of the same element. That means that the alpha particle has two protons in it that were lost by the uranium atom. We can solve this problem one of two ways: Solution 1: When an atom gives off an alpha particle, its atomic number drops by 2 and its mass number drops by 4, leaving: \(\ce{_{84}^{206}Po}$$. 14 Levende Talen Magazine 20114| 15 Levende Talen Magazine 20114| Huub van den Bergh & Carien Merema Het maken van huiswerk heeft een direct effect op … a) Beta particles have the symbol $$\ce{_{-1}^0e}$$. The nucleus of Cobalt-60 (a radioisotope with a half-life of 5,271 years) decays by undergoing beta radioactivity and forms a stable nucleus of nickel 60 The transformation, accompanied by the emission of an electron and an antineutrino, results in an excited nickel 60 nucleus 999 times out of 1,000. Villard knew that his described radiation was more powerful than previously described types of rays from radium, which included beta rays, first noted as "radioactivity" by Henri Becquerelin 1896, an… Gamma Decay. There is no change in mass or charge for this type of decay. The same thing happens in the nucleus: whenever it rearranges into a lower energy level, a high-energy photon is shooted out which is known as a gamma ray . A Beta decay can be a beta minus or a beta plus decay. Beta decay is the expression of the weak force in the nucleus. In such cases, a series of decays will occur until a stable nucleus is formed. 15 Qs . Atomic nucleus questions. The diagram above shows the energy and the frequency of these gamma. The alpha decay of $$\ce{U}$$-238 is, $\ce{_{92}^{238}U} \rightarrow \ce{_2^4He} + \ce{_{90}^{234}Th} \label{alpha1}$. Alpha particles have approximately four times the mass of a proton or neutron and approximately 8,000 times the mass of a beta particle. In this nuclear change, the uranium atom $$\left( \ce{_{92}^{238}U} \right)$$ transmuted into an atom of thorium $$\left( \ce{_{90}^{234}Th} \right)$$ and, in the process, gave off an alpha particle. We know the symbol is $$\ce{Po}$$, for polonium, because this is the element with 84 protons on the periodic table. Therefore, an internal conversion coefficient of this excited state ( 125 Te) is ICC = 93/7 = 13.3. Some later time, alpha particles were identified as helium-4 nuclei, beta particles were identified as electrons, and gamma rays as a form of electromagnetic radiation like x-rays, except much higher in energy and even more dangerous to living systems. Is het dus hij vind of vindt? Compare qualitatively the ionizing and penetration power of alpha particles $$\left( \alpha \right)$$, beta particles $$\left( \beta \right)$$, and gamma rays $$\left( \gamma \right)$$. All of these elements can go through nuclear changes and turn into different elements. The atomic numbers and mass numbers in a nuclear equation must be balanced. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! 17.3: Types of Radioactivity- Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay, https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/3/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FIntroductory_Chemistry%2FMap%253A_Introductory_Chemistry_(Tro)%2F17%253A_Radioactivity_and_Nuclear_Chemistry%2F17.03%253A_Types_of_Radioactivity-_Alpha_Beta_and_Gamma_Decay, The Ionizing and Penetration Power of Radiation, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. The electron is ejected from the nucleus and is the particle of radiation called beta. The ability of each type of radiation to pass through matter is expressed in terms of penetration power. In this beta decay, a thorium-234 nucleus has become a protactinium-234 nucleus. What separates this type of decay process from alpha or beta decay is that no particles are ejected from the nucleus when it undergoes this type of decay. When an atom emits gamma radiation, then no changes will be appearing in atomic number as well as in atomic masses and it cannot form a new element. Gamma emission can stabilize the state of the energy in the nucleus. The ability of radiation to damage molecules is analyzed in terms of what is called ionizing power. That same large size of alpha particles, however, makes them less able to penetrate matter. It is one of three major types of radioactivity (the other two being alpha decay and beta decay).. Gamma decay is analogous to the emission of light (usually visible light) by decay in the orbits of the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Radioactive decay types article. Radioactivity - Radioactivity - Gamma decay: A third type of radiation, gamma radiation, usually accompanies alpha or beta decay. Gamma ray logs are used to detect in situ radioactivity from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as potassium, thorium and uranium. 3-6, a nucleus changes from a higher energy state to a lower energy state through the emission of electromagnetic radiation ().The number of protons (and neutrons) in the nucleus does not change in this process, so the parent and daughter atoms are the same chemical element. The nucleus remains in an excited stage due to beta decay also. This page will be removed in future. Is mits in orde, dan mag je door. These interactions can alter molecular structure and function; cells no longer carry out their proper function and molecules, such as DNA, no longer carry the appropriate information. Emitting a beta particle causes the atomic number to increase by 1 and the mass number to not change. In this type of decay, an excited nucleus emits a gamma ray almost immediately upon formation. In these changes, the nucleus, which contains the protons that dictate which element an atom is, is changing. An example of a nucleus that undergoes alpha decay is uranium-238. This is the currently selected item. The damage to living systems is done by radioactive emissions when the particles or rays strike tissue, cells, or molecules and alter them. Gamma decay or γ decay represents the disintegration of a parent nucleus to a daughter through the emission of gamma rays (high energy photons). Gamma decay, type of radioactivity in which some unstable atomic nuclei dissipate excess energy by a spontaneous electromagnetic process. Gamma rays are particles of fast-moving matter Gamma rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation. Beta Decay When a radioactive element emits a beta particle it leads to the formation of a new element whose atomic number is increased by 1 without any change in its mass. Alpha (a) decay. The radioactive elements are unstable and emit radiations to achieve states of greater stability. In this article, we will look at the three types of radioactive decay namely, alpha, beta, and gamma decay. Vertalingen van 'mits' in het gratis Nederlands-Engels woordenboek en vele andere Engelse vertalingen. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. A particular radioisotope emits two coincident gamma rays, each with 100% yield per decay, with no angular correlation between the photon directions. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. In natural radioactive decay, three common emissions occur. In our studies up to this point, atoms of one element were unable to change into different elements. A cobalt-60 nucleus in the excited state emits a y-ray photon. Most resources say that beta particles can be stopped by a one-quarter inch thick sheet of aluminum. Missed the LibreFest? van Dafne Holtland en Rik Elstgeest vergeet je het nooit meer. Another alpha particle producer is thorium-230. The decay of $$\ce{U}$$-238 is an example of this. There is no change in mass or charge for this type of decay. Gamma (g) radiation. Sort by: Top Voted. This may seem to remove the threat from alpha particles, but it is only from external sources. The sum of the mass numbers (top numbers) on the reactant side equal the sum of the mass numbers on the product side. E.g. When the nucleus emits two electrons and two anti-neutrinos, the mode is called Double Beta Decay. Types Radiation Produced by Radioactive Decay When an atom undergoes radioactive decay, it emits one or more forms of radiation with sufficient energy to ionize the atoms with which it interacts. are a type of electromagnetic radiation. $\ce{_{91}^{234}Pa} \rightarrow \ce{_{-1}^0e} + \ce{_{92}^{234}U} \label{nuke1}$. Half life and decay rate. Most nuclear reactions emit energy in the form of gamma rays. Protons and neutrons in an excited nucleus are in higher orbitals, and they fall to lower levels by photon emission (analogous to electrons in excited atoms). Question Uranium 238, $$_{92}^{238}\textrm{U}$$ , emits an alpha particle to become what nucleus? Alpha decay emits the same number of protons and neutrons Beta decay always emits protons. When studying nuclear reactions in general, there is typically little information or concern about the chemical state of the radioactive isotopes, because the electrons from the electron cloud are not directly involved in the nuclear reaction (in contrast to chemical reactions). Gamma rays in this energy range can also be efficiently stopped, and therefore measured by external detectors. The greater the likelihood that damage will occur by an interaction is the ionizing power of the radiation. Chemical reactions release the difference between the chemical bond energy of the reactants and products, and the energies released have an order of magnitude of $$1 \times 10^3 \: \text{kJ/mol}$$. Gamma decay is represented symbolically by In this beta decay, a thorium-234 nucleus has one more proton than the original nucleus. β- decay involves normal, negatively-charged electrons , while β+ decay involves positively-charged electrons or positrons. In beta decay, a high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus. It isn't possible to be exposed to no ionizing radiation so the next best goal is to be exposed to as little as possible. The gamma decay is highly energetic decay, but they are neutral in nature. Gamma decay is the simplest form of nuclear decay—it is the emission of energetic photons by nuclei left in an excited state by some earlier process. Many nuclei are radioactive; that is, they decompose by emitting particles and in doing so, become a different nucleus. All nuclei with 84 or more protons are radioactive, and elements with less than 84 protons have both stable and unstable isotopes. Information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org number! Simply a high energy electron that is because in all other types of radioactive decay in which some unstable nuclei! 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