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Here GH Bennett explores the desperate six-year campaign to preserve the Atlantic supply line and prevent Britain from … A History of Greyhounds Ancient Egypt. “It was pretty bleak,” says James Inman, a comedian whose book about a 1995 cross-country trip, Greyhound Diary, captures the zeitgeist of the Dirty Dog from the late 1970s until the mid 2000s. From 1941 to 1945, the company aggressively adopted a patriotic mission, even going so far as to outline its priorities in its 1942 annual report to shareholders. Bus. The seventh column is the Break Average column. Greyhound has been busing Americans around for a century. Joe Black, a former Brooklyn Dodger who was the first African-American pitcher to win a World Series game, was hired as full time director of Greyhound’s outreach program. “It’s very hard, rough work,” says Blazich, “and it can be very boring. “They idealized their passengers and the country they lived in.”. 'Greyhound Attack' is a (presumably lower budget) film with less than impressive CGI about the German Me262 jet fighter. Set in the winter of 1942, Greyhound—a nod to the nickname of the U.S.S. Wickman’s “Snoose Line”—“snoose” was Swedish for snuff, which local miners snorted to stay alert—also faced competition from other car owners who saw money-making possibilities in hauling people to work. Sixteen years later, like Abraham casting Ishmael into the desert, the Greyhound Corporation spun off its U.S. bus operations. His convoy, however, is pursued by German U-boats. U.S. Navy sailors enjoyed more “crude comforts” than their German counterparts, but destroyer duty was “equally cold, wet and nauseating,” according to Blazich. Eisenhower was president at the time, but that’s not why his name is on America’s largest public works project to date. or Just four years later Greyhound told annual report readers that “it will be some years before the development of a helicopter with sufficient capacity for economical capacity” to make the idea a reality. Greyhound's overall record on race-relations was mixed. If a U-boat spotted a convoy and escaped unscathed, it could radio the vessels’ location to headquarters or collaborate with a “wolf pack of colleagues to intercept and to launch a mass attack,” observes Krause in The Good Shepherd. The average Greyhound passenger pays $52 to travel 355 miles, and last year the Dirty Dog’s buses covered 5.6 billion passenger miles—about 2.8 billion times the distance between Hibbing and Alice, Minn. Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Greyhound was especially enmeshed in the fabric of American life during a crucial period in the nation’s history: World War II. Then, in 1925, Great Northern Railroad president Ralph Budd decided to actually study the matter. Even Greyhound’s corporate history reflects a slick transfer. “It becomes a delaying action for the Germans, as they essentially fight the Soviet Union, and then later the American and British forces.”. Get the best of Smithsonian magazine by email. When traveling in a convoy, for instance, sudden orders to change direction meant upward of 40 ships had to coordinate their movements simultaneously. This tenuous period serves as the backdrop to Greyhound, whose trailer declares, “The only thing more dangerous than the front lines was the fight to get there.”. But that labor strife, which often turned violent, had a silver lining. For captains like Hanks’ fictional Krause, leading a fleet to safety meant processing incomplete information quickly and making decisions in a matter of seconds. But first, a railroad big shot had to see something hiding in plain sight. The Soviet Union, besieged by the Nazis’ Operation Barbarossa, was also in dire need of food, oil and other essential supplies, which arrived via seaports on the Arctic Ocean. Depending on whom you ask, this strategy was either the beginning of a decades-long loss of focus that ate away at Greyhound’s soul or a smart strategy for diversifying profits and protecting shareholders. After the U.S. entered the conflict in December 1941, U-boats enjoyed great success off the East Coast: Between January and July 1942, 90 ships (including four U-boats) sank off the coast of North Carolina, and more than 1,100 merchant seamen died, according to the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary. Future … Ten years later, Greyhound became the first bus line to launch a national chain of depot restaurants—Post House—aimed at riders who didn’t like greasy roadside diners. “Logistics,” notes the curator, “are one of the most critical components of war.”. “I think it’s fair to say that Greyhound is once again proud of its product,” says Schwieterman. Early in the 20th century, Americans generally took trains when they needed to travel between cities. Through its ads, meanwhile, Greyhound told consumers what it saw as its primary wartime function: transporting troops and other crucial personnel around the country (“This Army Moves By Greyhound”); after that came educating the public about efficient travel (“Serve America Now So You Can See America Later”), which mattered a lot now that fuel and rubber were being rationed. Greyhound’s self-selected role was as unofficial tour guide. He came back to the U.S. pretty well convinced that his home country needed its own system of high-quality roads. Still, by the time Black was hired, there were other trends bubbling that had greater consequences for bus travel. WWII drama from film-maker Christopher Forbes which follows American fighter pilots on a perilous mission into the skies of enemy territory. Trailer. Forester’s 1955 novel, The Good Shepherd (not to be confused with the 2006 film The Good Shepherd about the founding of the CIA). Tom Hanks’ latest film, Greyhound, spotlights this much-overlooked chapter in naval history, building on the World War II buff’s previous credits (most prominently, Saving Private Ryan, “Band of Brothers” and “The Pacific”) to offer a claustrophobia-inducing dramatization of the battle between Allied ships and German submarines, or U-boats. Here’s what you need to know to separate fact from fiction ahead of the movie’s July 10 premiere on Apple TV+. Realizing that most iron miners were too poor to afford their own vehicle, Wickman decided to start transporting workers between Hibbing and Alice, a mining town two miles away. As any farsighted executive could see, this development, coupled with the increasing affordability of air travel in the 1950s and 1960s, spelled trouble for the bus industry. May 20, 1961: A mob of 300 white segregationists attacked black and white Freedom Riders at the Greyhound Bus Station in Montgomery, Alabama. The company began to revamp its fleet, part of an “Elevate Everything” program that included new looks for buses, terminals and uniforms. The attack on the Kidd, which has been the centerpiece of the USS Kidd Veterans Museum in Baton Rouge since 1984, killed 38 sailors and wounded 55 … “Greyhound has become generic for bus travel,” says Robert Gabrick, author of Going The Greyhound Way. But Trailways in 1987 was in financial trouble, and the government decided that saving jobs and retaining bus routes trumped other concerns. Vote Now! Before and after the war, though, Greyhound spent much time, money and effort on forward progress. Greyhound is a 2020 American war film directed by Aaron Schneider and starring Tom Hanks, who also wrote the screenplay. U-boats survived through stealth, traveling on the surface by night and submerging during the day. “It became a business of low aspirations.”, Whatever the verdict, where once the giant company was known, at least somewhat affectionately, as “The Hound,” consumers soon enough started calling it “The Dirty Dog,” with absolutely no affection at all. Mar. If Greyhound adopts the same storytelling approach, consider watching Wolfgang Petersen’s 1981 film Das Boot, which captures the “boredom, filth and sheer terror” experienced by U-boat crews. “Greyhound was generating massive amounts of cash that probably wasn’t best invested in a slow-growth business like bus travel,” says Craig Lentzsch, Greyhound’s CEO many years later (1994-2003). Directed by Christopher Forbes. We use cookies to personalize content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic. In fact, Greyhound was for decades really just a collection of regional bus lines united under a single brand—Great Lakes Greyhound, Florida Greyhound—connected by sophisticated timetables and transfers. and killer app: someone else at the wheel (“Leave the Driving to Us”). Forester. Things got even worse as the ethnic-bus model was copied in various other ethnic communities around the U.S., resulting in the curbside buses that started popping up 10 to 15 years ago in major cities with large Asian populations like Chicago, New York and Washington, D.C. In 1925, that company merged with a Wisconsin bus line operator to form Northland Transportation, which was Wickman’s first stab at interstate bus travel. Such close encounters were rare during the Battle of the Atlantic, which was more often fought with torpedoes and depth charges. “It’s an American success story.”. Forester’s novel is told from its protagonist’s point of view, meaning that readers never see what life is like on the other side of the battle. And, of course, Greyhound was for years at the cutting edge of bus design, with models that still enthrall a large community of collectors: 1939’s Super Coach (first bus with an all-metal body and rear-mounted engine), 1953’s Highway Traveler (picture windows, power steering, air shocks) and 1954’s Scenic Cruiser, which debuted the year Wickman died and gave the world a gift for the ages: on-board bathrooms. But the real stars of these ads were America (“Roaring Cities, Calm Countryside”) and family (“Rolling Home”). “It was a lesson in America’s class divide: broke people, unpleasant buses, rude drivers, horrible terminals. … If you’re a survivor, you hope to God you get in a lifeboat, and then you hope that somebody picks you up. Zulu Attack. The Allies’ main strategy for ensuring cargo’s safe arrival in Europe was sending merchant ships in convoys, or groups escorted by warships and, if possible, aircraft. Those unlucky folks who couldn’t—or those who didn’t know how to drive—still traveled by train, unless they were too poor to afford a ticket, in which case they took a bus. Bus routes could replace money-losing rail runs, while also feeding passengers to trains when it made sense. In what might be called a reverse Eisenhower, this overwhelmingly awful turn of events sowed the seeds of Greyhound’s later revival. Company officials credited the film for spurring interest in bus travel, and 12 years later Greyhound was still inspiring silver screen romance: The 1946 musical No Leave, No Love, featured the hit “Love On A Greyhound Bus” (a song that won’t be confused with the less romantic 2003 Sara Evans country hit, “Backseat of a Greyhound Bus). Hanks, who stars as United States Navy Commander Ernest Krause, adapted the screenplay from C.S. “Like Kleenex for tissues.” Indeed, this classic American business icon—which, as it happens, is now owned by a British conglomerate—today has more than 7,300 employees, with estimated yearly sales of $820 million and 2,000 buses serving 3,800 destinations in 48 U.S. states and nine Canadian provinces. You don’t know if it is hit and you have to go in the water, will you be found? This labor stoppage, one of the longest and nastiest in American history, forced the company to drastically curtail operations, which resulted in big losses. Although not all dogs are in the online databases below, you have a pretty good chance of finding your greyhound … Advances in Allied technology—juxtaposed with the “increasing obsolescence” of standard U-boat designs, in the words of historian G.H. Better roads meant quicker travel and fewer repairs, but they also encouraged the growing ranks of car owners to drive themselves on business trips and vacations. But Greyhound’s journey to bus-industry dominance was far from smooth, not least because U.S. roads were god-awful bumpy when Wickman started out. Mostly movie studios, automakers and large consumer product companies, these firms painted a picture through their ads and products of a country whose future was only exceeded by the gumption of its citizens and the bounty of its natural resources. Newly liberated and headquartered in Dallas, Greyhound Lines returned to its roots, acquiring Trailways, its largest rival, that same year. “Had the Atlantic been lost, so too would have Britain,” writes historian James Holland for History Extra. A huge hit, the Columbia Pictures comedy starred Claudette Colbert as a spoiled heiress on the run and Clark Gable as a reporter chasing her, but third billing should have gone to the Greyhound bus featured prominently in the action. The next year, Greyhound bought 10% of the Canadian bus builder Motor Coach Industries (it later acquired the rest). In addition to the high cost in human lives, both sides suffered significant material losses. On June 11, Apple announced a release date of July 10. “I’m amazed at Greyhound’s brand recognition,” says DePaul University professor Joseph Schwieterman, an authority on intercity bus travel. Greyhounds nearly became extinct during times of famine in the Middle Ages. Crew members had to balance long periods of monotony with the constant need to stay alert. Two decades later, Greyhound found itself in the middle of another cultural shift, when civil rights activists known as “Freedom Riders” rode Greyhound (and then-rival Trailways) buses into the Deep South to protest segregation. Throughout this country’s two “Great Migrations”—during and after each World War—millions of southern blacks moved north and west in search of better lives. Sadly, this crazy-genius idea was not to be. The company's first route began in Hibbing, Minnesota, in 1914 and the company adopted the Greyhound name in 1929. “It’s not enough,” The captain replies. That’s how Greyhound’s stable of businesses came to include such diverse businesses as Burger King, Dial Soap, Purex bleach, a package delivery service, and even a skin bank for burn victims. As careers go, Carl Eric Wickman’s stint in the car business was less than auspicious. The company launched (on its own and with partners) three different services: NeOn, BoltBus and Yo! From this point on, they came to be considered the dogs of the aristocracy. The attack was broken up by local police. In true cinematic fashion, the captain ultimately battles not only a military enemy, but his own personal demons and self-doubt. It's hard to believe that after all these years, the company is still riding high. Allied and Axis sailors had divergent experiences at sea, with the latter facing especially precarious conditions. On the one hand, Greyhound had a history of hiring blacks; on the other hand, most of those jobs were menial. They were saved by clergymen who protected them and bred them for the nobility. If, however, the U-boat was destroyed, none “of this could happen; if she were even kept down for an hour or two while the convoy again made good its escape, the business of finding the convoy again would be made much more difficult for the Germans, much more prolonged, possibly too difficult altogether.”, Overall, says Blazich, “It’s stressful. US Air Force fighter pilots are sent on a dangerous mission to destroy a German airbase. Forester is known for his meticulous research, and the book, released in 1957, has long been lauded for its accuracy in portraying the Battle for the Atlantic during WWII. “Greyhound invested time and financial resources in advertising its ability to transport passengers all over the U.S.,” says Margaret Wash, an intercity bus historian. For Greyhound, though, the experience was negative, as the company struggled to get Hispanic customers back on its buses after settling its labor differences. Until then, intercity bus drivers followed a common practice when crossing the Mason-Dixon line, asking black passengers to sit separate from whites in the back of the bus. The Greyhound reaches back over 6,000 years in history. But that wasn’t his only challenge. It was during these decades—from the 1930s through the 1950s—when Greyhound was among a small group of U.S. firms that helped America reimagine itself. Meet Joseph Rainey, the First Black Congressman, The State of American Craft Has Never Been Stronger. U-boats can go on entire patrols and never see another ship.”, On the flip side, U-boat missions could be incredibly dangerous, particularly toward the end of the war as Allied equipment improved: “These men that have gone through months and months, maybe years, of training, their first attempt to go to sea, they’ll get sunk literally within sight of land in some cases, maybe no more than a day out of port.”. Editor’s Note, June 11, 2020: This piece originally stated that Greyhound would premiere June 12 on Apple TV+. Hanks, of Ranck Avenue, was walking a 4-year-old greyhound, Gina, shortly before 9 a.m. Saturday when the pack of dogs charged him from a fenced-in yard near Advance Auto Parts at 1003 E. King Street. Greyhound Attack (2019) Greyhound Attack (2019) 1.2 179. Borie and U-boat U-405. In the skirmish, another Freedom Rider, Genevieve Hughes, also sustained injuries. This was especially galling to many because African-Americans always accounted for a disproportionately large percentage of intercity bus passengers. Good thing, too, since it’s tough to imagine people writing crowd-pleasing lyrics about “Northland Transportation.” Greyhound, on the other hand, has turned up in songs ranging from Robert Johnson’s “Me and the Devil” to Chuck Berry’s “Promised Land” to the Allman Brothers’ “Ramblin’ Man.” But the free product placement that truly turned Greyhound into a cultural icon was the 1934 movie It Happened One Night. Never been Stronger crucial period in the skies of enemy territory their passengers the. Year, Greyhound bought 10 % of the six-year Battle, as many as 80,000 Allied,!: someone else at the height of the most “ glamorous ” campaign, Uncle Sam outlawed in. 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